What drone pilots see while they are flying, are the low latency analog video from FPV cameras. To choose the best FPV camera for your multirotors, there are a few things to consider which we will discuss in this post.
Article was first created in Dec 2014, last updated in Nov 2016.
Choosing the Best FPV Camera For Quadcopter / Multirotor
FPV camera is one of the most important parts of a quadcopter setup. Real-time image is broadcast from the camera through a video transmitter. Regardless how good the video transmitter is, the image quality on your FPV display is only as good as your FPV camera.
- CCD and CMOS
- NTSC and PAL
- Camera Weight, Size, working voltage
- IR Block and IR sensitive
- Other features
Before we begin, it’s important to know the difference between FPV cameras and HD cameras. HD videos are captured using HD cameras like the GoPro, which is an additional camera pilots mount on their multirotors.
CCD and CMOS – Type of Imaging Senso
CCD and CMOS are two different imaging sensors used in FPV cameras, each has unique characteristics and advantages. Most HD digital cameras uses CMOS sensors. For FPV cameras, CCD used to be better a few years back, but not the case anymore. Here are a summary of the pros and cons, check out this post for more detail.
- Less jello
- Less noisy in low light
- Better light handling
- Lower latency
- Higher resolution
- Better colour
- Higher frame rate
- Consume less power
CMOS cameras can perform just as good as CCD cameras these days. It’s very important that you check example footage of the cameras before buying, see how they perform in bright daylight, low light, facing the sun and overall wide dynamic range.
Latency is just as important as image quality. CCD generally has a lower latency than the CMOS.
NTSC and PAL – Video Encoding Standard
It really isn’t a big issue whether to use PAL or NTSC nowadays, as they are both supported by most FPV equipment. NTSC is used in North America, Japan and South Korea. PAL is used in most of Europe, Australia and large parts of Africa and Asia. It’s a good idea to stick with the standard in your country. But I don’t think it would be a huge problem if you decide to use the other format.
The main different is that PAL offers better resolution, while NTSC allows more frame rate. So if you want to have good picture, PAL is good. But if you want more fluid footage, NTSC does a better job.
- PAL: 720 x 576 @ 25fps
- NTSC: 720 x 480 @ 30fps
For a more detail comparison, check out this post.
FPV Camera Field of View (FOV) – Lens Focal Width
When selecting a FPV camera, you usually have an option of different lens focal width, which give you different field of view (FOV). But note that lens focal width does NOT always give you the same FOV. For example, on one camera 2.8mm lens might give you 90 degree FOV, but on another different camera, 2.8mm might give you 100 degree FOV. So knowing what FOV you like is more important than knowing what lens focal width when you are buying a camera/lens.
It’s important to pick a FOV that you feel comfortable with. The wider FOV, the more environment you can see. But it’s not always a good thing though as you will start to notice the “fish eye” effect. The objects in the middle will appear smaller and further away, and the edges of the image will appear curly. However when FOV is too small the image will appear zoomed in.
I personally find 130-140 degree more comfortable for FPV (normally 2.5mm-2.4mm lens).
This is a good example of different FOV, from high focal width number to low.
Some cameras allows replacement lenses of different FOV. You can get these screw-in lenses and try them, instead of buying a whole new camera. For example I was experimenting different lens for the Runcam Swift.
I think it’s all down to personal preference and what type of flying you do. For instance if you tend to fly proximity or through places with lots of close obstacles, wider FOV might be better. If you fly high altitude in clear open space, narrower FOV might be better. For FPV racers, wider FOV are popular because it allows the pilot to see more when flying fast, without having to physically tilt the camera as much.
FPV Camera Resolution TV Line (TVL) – Definition
TVL (TV Lines) is basically a measure of how good the FPV camera resolution is. The number is based on how many alternating black and white lines can be displayed in the image horizontally. A 600TVL camera means it can display 300 black lines and 300 white lines alternately in one picture. The more TV lines, the better definition image you can get out of the camera. Commonly seen FPV cameras TVL are 380, 480, 600, 700, 800, 1200 etc.
However higher TVL or resolution comes with a price: it costs more and it has higher latency (because of the image processing)! 600TVL has been the most popular choice for a number of years. Besides, it’s not always “the more the better”. Due to the limitation of analog 5.8Ghz video transmission: there is only so much data can be transferred per second, i.e. the quality of your video is capped.
Latency of a camera can be a deciding factor if you are into drone racing. Although it’s less critical if you fly around the park, it will still affect your the way you fly. Imagine if you are flying at 100Km/h, a 50mSec delay means you quad would have traveled 1.4m before you can react on the sticks.
Delay of a camera is often associated with TVL, and the image processing.
Most 600TVL CCD cameras often only have less than 20ms of lag, such as the Runcam Swift and Foxeer HS1177. For higher TVL cameras have higher delay due to more image processing.
Latency is not published on camera spec by manufacturers, and this is tested by online reviewers most of the times, so you need to do your research and find out for yourself.
There are 2 aspect ratio to choose from, 4:3 and 16:9. It all comes down to which ratio your FPV display/goggles supports. If you have a 4:3 camera but 16:9 display, the image will appear stretched. If you have a 16:9 camera but 4:3 display, the image will appear squashed.
FPV Camera Size, Weight and Operating Voltage/Wiring
Next things to consider would be the dimensions and working voltage. Cameras for FPV these days are standardizing, most are built on a square 32x32mm PCB or inside a 26x26mm case. This determines how easily the camera can be mounted on the multirotor frame of you choice.
Sometime you see them branded as 1/3″ cameras because they use the popular 1/3″ Sony CCD chip. It doesn’t indicate the size of the camera.
A FPV cameras could weight somewhere between 10g to 30g. There are also micro FPV cameras available for micro brushed quads which are only 1g-2g.
The electrical connections are very simple, we usually just connect 3 cables. The red wire is the positive voltage power, black is the ground, yellow is the video signal. Sometimes you might also get an extra withe wire which is the audio (if there is a built-in microphone).
Most cameras these days have a wide range of input voltage, e.g. 5V to 17V. This allows you to power them either from a regulated power source or directly from LiPo batteries (2S-4S). I also prefer to run a LC filter (power filter) to clean the power source for the camera, video transmitter and OSD for the best quality image possible.
IR Block VS IR Sensitive
FPV cameras normally offer two versions, one is IR Block and the other IR Sensitive. IR block gives you better colour, IR sensitive works better in low light condition.
If you mainly fly during the day, stick with IR Block.
Here is a more detail comparison of the two.
Camera Settings Features
Some good cameras allow users to change settings using an OSD control module (on screen display). There are so many settings on these cameras, it could be overwhelming for the first time. To understand some of the useful features, take a look at this post about how I set up my Sony Super HAD 600TVL Camera.
Running a dedicated FPV camera VS GoPro / Mobius
If you use the GoPro or Mobius camera for recording, you might wonder if these cameras can be used for FPV as well. It’s not uncommon to see people do that, in order to simplify their multicopter setup to save weight and costs. However there are some disadvantages using HD cameras for FPV, as I have already pointed out in this post “the reasons for running a dedicated FPV camera“. To summarize:
- Lag – there is a obvious delay, especially when recording at the same time
- Battery dependent – You don’t have video feed if the GoPro battery dies. You can power the HD camera with external power source but it will consume large amount of current
- Recording locks up – If for some reason the recording freezes, your might also lose video feed
Therefore I always use a dedicated FPV camera alongside with a HD recording camera. It’s also important that you don’t put the FPV camera on a gimbal, so it doesn’t mess up your orientation. You can also consider having video feed from the GoPro as well at the same time, and use a video feed switcher. You can switch between cameras with your radio transmitter, and see what the Gopro is filming.
Adding On Screen Display Data – OSD
This is a bit off the topics, but i am sure there are still people wondering what an OSD is. Basically, an OSD (on screen display) is a device that overlays text/data onto your camera footage. The video feed from the camera enters the OSD, and the OSD output goes into your video transmitter.
OSD is an useful tool to have as you can display many types of data on your FPV screen: RSSI, current, flight speed, altitude, compass heading, and distance, etc. For people like me who doesn’t fly long range, I prefer to just have time and batter voltage displayed on my OSD.
You made it!
I hope this article gave your some ideas and understanding how to choose a suitable FPV camera. Don’t hesitate to leave me a comment/question, and happy flying!