How To Choose Radio Transmitter & Receiver for Racing Drones and Quadcopter

This tutorial explains the basics of a radio transmitter (RC Controller) and what you should look out for when buying one: price, the number of channels, modes, frequency and other features.

A radio transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) should be one of the first items to buy when building a quadcopter. It can be confusing to RC beginners how to choose a suitable RC transmitter. Unlike other parts that often break or become outdated, a good TX can follow you for many years so it’s okay to invest a bit more on a decent one.

Table of Content

What are a RC Transmitter and Receiver?

A radio transmitter (a.k.a. TX) is a device that allows the pilots to control the aircraft wirelessly. The signal/commands are then received by a radio receiver (RX) which is connected to a flight controller.

If you are new and interested in flying drones, you should check out the beginner guide to mini quad racing.


I think the term “channels” is wrong term, we should really call it “the number of controls”.

The number of channels determines how many individual aux functions and control you can configure in the TX.

For example, throttle, yaw (rotating right and left), pitch (lean forward and backward), and roll (roll left and right), each takes up 1 channel. And so as you can see, four channels is the bare minimum to control a quadcopter (pitch, roll, throttle, yaw).

But for hobby grade quadcopters, you definitely want more channels and controls.


Additional channels on a transmitter are often called AUX channels (Auxiliary), in the form of switches and pots (potentiometer or knob). You can use them to change flight modes or trigger certain function/features on the multirotor.

In general it is recommended to have at least 5 or 6 channels for a quadcopter. The extra 1 or 2 channels can be used to arm the quad and/or switch between different flight modes.


Radio transmitters with more channels (6+) are generally more expensive. They tend to have better build quality and are more functional than a basic 4 or 5 channel radio transmitter.

The stick control on a radios TX is called a gimbal. (don’t get confused with camera gimbal :D )

radio controller gimbal - transmitter RC


There are 4 different TX modes – mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 4. These are basically the different configuration of the 2 control sticks.

Mode one configuration has the elevator control on the left joystick and the throttle on the right one.

Mode two is the most common for quadcopter because the stick represents the movement of your quadcopter. It has the elevator control on the right joystick and the motor throttle on the left one. The right joystick self centres in the both axis, whereas the left joystick only self centres in yaw axis (left/right direction) and clicks or slides in the throttle (up/down) axis in order to allow constant throttle.


Mode three – same as Mode one except Aileron and Rudder are swapped.

Mode four – same as Mode two except Aileron and Rudder are swapped.

how to choose RC radio transmitter tx mode 3 4

Because of the identical gimbals configuration, in some TX, Mode 1 and Mode 3 are exchangeable, so as Mode 2 and Mode 4. This is achieved by swapping Aileron (roll) and Rudder (yaw) channels in user settings.

There is no right or wrong which one to use, just what you are more comfortable with. If you don’t know which mode to use, just go for mode 2 since majority of the pilots are using it, and it’s going to have a higher resell value later on.

Frequency and Technology

The most common frequency for RC is 2.4GHz. Lower frequencies are available for longer range such as 433MHz and 900MHz.

The higher frequency of 2.4GHz offers also has the advantage of smaller antenna which is much more portable. However the range is shorter than the lower frequency.

The 2.4GHz system is a much newer technology. It’s become the standard for radio control after new protocols were created that introduced frequency hopping technology. It basically looks for available channel automatically and avoid interfering with other pilots.


All the radio transmitter manufacturers switched to the new channel hopping protocols which made RC very easy to maintain and use. The software running is constantly scanning for the best frequency to use and if it detects any interference, automatically switches to another available channel. It is doing this many times per second so you never experience glitches or radio interference which was a big problem in the RC industry for many years. Another good thing about channel hopping is that you can fly with many other people at the same time without getting interference.

Radio Receivers

A radio controller usually comes with a receiver (RX). It’s important to know that a TX normally only works with radio receiver (aka RX) from the same brand. For example, a Frsky Taranis TX won’t work with a Spektrum receiver.

When you buy a TX, you need to realize that you are also locking yourself into their receivers. This becomes an important consideration: some brands of receivers are more expensive than others; some brands might have a better selection of light weight receivers for mini quad; Some brands don’t do telemetry….

Remember, you are going to put a receiver in every quad you build so this adds up quickly in the long run.

Binding TX and RX

Binding the radio transmitter to the receiver is very straightforward, and is only required at the first time you are setting up a new receiver with the transmitter. Most decent TX will allow you to bind multiple receivers to the TX. You can even create separate model profiles for each aircraft so you can have different settings for each model. Check the instructions for binding procedures that comes with the receivers.

Once the TX and Rx are bound, the RX cannot be controlled by other TX.

How to choose receivers

Your preference in receivers will limits what TX can you get, such as availability, size, receiver etc. For example, Frsky radio system was made super popular due to their receivers having compact form factor. which makes them perfect for mini quad builds.

In this list we rounded up all the popular Frsky receivers for mini quads and micro quads.

There is also consideration to what receiver protocols are allowed and technologies used, such as PWM, PPM and SBUS. Generally speaking, SBUS is better than PPM because of latency, while they are both better than PWM because of the number of connection required. For more detail: Receiver RX Protocols and Technology.

How to Choose a Radio Transmitter?

Budget and Channels

The price range is huge, from as cheap as $50 to well over $1000.

If you have a tight budget and not committed to spend $200 for a Taranis, it would make sense to get a cheap 6-channel just to get a taste of flying. And you could upgrade to a better transmitter later on when you are more experienced and know what to look for. Otherwise I think you should just get one of the decent TX we recommend in the next section straight away.

Hardware and Features

There’s a lot to consider when it comes to choosing a good radio transmitter, such as the display screen (resolution, backlight etc), how the sticks feel (gimbals quality), multiple model memories and Training features (Buddy mode), and so on. Some may also like the expo and curve functions which allow you to change how the sticks react to your input by softening there feel at points you setup (although this can also be done in the flight controller software, which is actually preferred by many pilots so you don’t reduce the sticks resolution and inputs on the radio).

Some RC transmitters support programming and firmware flashing to enhance user experience. You can personalize them with music and voice recordings or whatever you’d like. Do your research before spending good money on it.


Ergonomics very much a personal thing, no one can tell you which TX would feel good or bad in your own hands. Considerations such as the weight, the location of the sticks and switches, how large your hands are, how long your fingers are, all play a part in this.

I don’t think it’s a huge issue to worry about though with the TX we suggested here. These companies are brand names in the RC industry for years and they know how to make a good TX. If you are still try to find out more, I would suggest to go to a local meetup and try a few from other pilots.

Telemetry Support

The longer I am flying quadcopters, the more I value Telemetry. It’s an useful feature that allows RX to send flight data back to the TX, such as RSSI, battery voltage, current draw etc.

External RF Module Capability

With this feature you can install and use an external transmitter module rather than the built-in RF module. It allows you to transmit on a different frequency such as 433MHz rather than 2.4Ghz, or use a different RF systems/receivers from a different brand. For example, the Taranis with Orange module can bind with Spektrum receivers.

Why invest in a good transmitter

A decent radio transmitter is a long term investment.

With programs available such as betaflight, we can setup the additional channels to tune the quads PID and rates during flight. This makes having a transmitter with additional AUX channels a big benefit. Having the ability to save multiple models is an added benefit of having a better radio as this allows one transmitter to be used for multiple crafts.

Another “should have” feature is direct connection between TX and computer via USB, which allows you to use the TX for flight simulators without any other additional hardware or mods. Training in FPV simulators allows you to get used to the feel of the sticks/controls and build up muscle memory. Some  cheap transmitters can also do this but requires a lot more tinkering and  additional hardware.

Popular TX Options for FPV

TX Image Name Channels Price Resellers
Flysky FS-T6 6 $56 Banggood | Amazon
Spektrum DXe 6 $60 Amazon | GetFPV
Turnigy Evolution 8 $68 Amazon
iRangeX IR8M 8 $80 Banggood
Turnigy 9XR 8 $111 Amazon | GetFPV
FrSky Taranis Q X7 16 $120 Banggood | Amazon | GetFPV | HorusRC
Dark Knight
Frsky X-Lite GetFPV | Banggood
Spektrum DX6e 6 $180 Amazon
FrSky Taranis X9D Plus 16 $205 Banggood | Amazon | GetFPVHorusRC
TBS Tango 10 $250 Amazon | GetFPV
Frsky Horus X10S 16 HorusRC
FrSky Horus X12S 16 $500 Amazon | GetFPV | HorusRC
Spektrum DX9 Black 9 $600 Amazon

Recommendation on a Radio Transmitter

My personal favorite currently are the Taranis X9D Plus, and the Taranis QX7.

  • They both use the powerful open source firmware, OpenTX
  • Compatible to a wide range of Frsky receivers, which supports PWM, PPM, SBUS, and they are affordable, small and light weight
  • The QX7 has fewer switches than the X9D, and the screen is of lower resolution, but that’s completely fine for mini quad’s. Some even says the QX7 has a better grip than the X9D, but of course that’s very much personal

Update (March 2017) – Frsky released a X9D SE (Special edition) that has many upgrades to the original version: M9 Gimbals, special “carbon fibre” housing, better switches

I Started with the Turnigy 9X

When I started, I bought the Turnigy 9X. It was an affordable option for $60, and has a lot of room for DIY/Upgrade modifications! See my review about this Transmitter. But I quickly grew out of it and bought an Taranis 9XD Plus as I needed more features, and receiver options.

The 9XR-Pro at the time just came out, it was a step up from the 9X. It has similar functionality to other higher end transmitters but comes in the most basic forms to keep costs super low. It is programmable so you can modify it and flash various types of transmitter firmware on it. Since it also uses external modules you can use it with a couple of different protocols such as Frsky, Orange (dsmx/dsm2). There are many mods that can be done and there is a whole open source community surrounding it which gives its users endless options.

Upgraded to the Taranis X9D Plus

It was tempting but I’m glad I got the X9D Plus instead. The X9D is very powerful for what it costs, making it one of the best value TX out there. It has swept the FPV industry to become one of the most popular radio transmitters. Not to mention the large range of small size receivers and very useful telemetry system. Here are a list of tutorials, mods and tricks for the Taranis X9D. You can also consider it’s cheaper version, the QX7.

Other higher end options are the Futaba T10/T18, Spektrum DX9/DX18, JR-XG11/XG14 among many others. See this comparison review of the DX6 and Taranis.

DIY RC Transmitter

Back in 2013 I attempted to build an RC Transmitter myself but I haven’t tested it yet with a quadcopter.

Edit History

  • Oct 2013 – Article created
  • Jun 2016 – Updated with popular TX options
  • Jun 2017 – Article updated, added receiver info

83 thoughts on “How To Choose Radio Transmitter & Receiver for Racing Drones and Quadcopter

  1. Oluebube


    please, is there any way I could upgrade my Fs-i6x to get a longer range? (not too experienced in this). If not, which other cheap Tx can I get that can reach a range of 1km or above.


  2. Amir

    Im looking for a Cheap TX which has lots of Cheap and Tiny RX options for miniquads, FlySky FS – i6 okay?

  3. Arabinda

    I dont know about electronics much. But i am making a small plane by using 2 12v dc motors. I want to control that plane by transmitter. So now what i hav to for. Please help me.

  4. Tom

    Hi , I came accross your site as I was googling for building drones. I am gettign into building a hexcopter / quadcopter. what are the max range of these transmitters in miles? Is there a way i can conrll through my laptop ? what software would I need?

    Also, when i build a drone can I make it follow something automatically when making movies etc? and make it return to base when battery is low? how are those programmed?
    Can anyone guide me on these?


  5. Vladimir

    Nice work! It was very helpful for me, when I decide to buy my quadcopter. I want to buy with F3 flight controller.
    But Taranis is much expensive for me. Can I use Radiolink AT9 for example? What do you think about that transmitter?

  6. Carlos Atouguia


    i am looking for someone or a company that will be able to customise my transmitter. i want to put the throttle on a trigger button and not on the stick.

    does any one know of any company anyone that is able to do that?

  7. Zeeshan

    I am new into quadcopter world and your article was a blessing for me. i have built a basic quadcopter that lefts off 30cm from ground….i made an adnroid app for this……moving ahead for more, its getting difficult as i was using arduino with gryo+accelermeter……very frustrated and challenging…..i had decided not to use receiver etc and build from core.
    after 4 months trial, i was unable to make a perfect one and the cost on it was increasing day by day… no i decided to use receiver and transmitter….
    can u help me answer few questions:
    1. these receivers have built in gyro+accelerometer or we use external ones?
    2. how do i connect my ESC to it?
    3. do we need a flight controller as well?

    sorry for such basic questions….but these basic things are needed by my small brain

    1. Weebly Reddit

      Your drone’s flight controller should have a gyro/accelerometer built in.

      Yes, heck yes.
      You need a flight controller/

      1. Amir

        In theory you dont need a FlightController, you can just hook up Servo connectors of the ESCs to a PWM Receiver and viola, you control motors, but you dont have any sort of stabilization

  8. David Frayne

    Hi I have a spektrum dx7 tx and RX will this work on the Eachine 250 racer I am well used to setting it up what are your thoughts

  9. Jonathan

    Hi Oscar

    Note that in the UK, and many other countries outside the US, 72MHz is illegal. The equivalent here, for aircraft only, is 35MHz.

    There’s also 40MHz, but this is only legal for land-based craft.

    1. Oscar Post author

      good point guess i missed to mention that i will add a few words in the tutorial shortly! thank you Jonathan!

  10. justin

    Hey oscar i have a turnigy 9x with er9x. i was wondering if you ever setup throttle curves to reduce sensitivity when the sticks are a mid point? maybe you could write an article regarding mixes that you use?

    1. Oscar Post author

      I normally don’t setup curves on the TX, so I can have full resolution throughout the whole stick range… what you are asking is just rate which you can change in FC isnt it?

    1. Oscar Post author

      lol sorry not much experience with Deviation TX, neither from my editor Justin and people flying mini quad around me…

      1. Greg

        Deviation is a replacement firmware designed primarily for the Walkera Devo series RC Transmitters. While Deviation is heavily influenced both by the Walkera DEVO8 firmware as well as by the Flysky/Turnigy based ER9X firmware, it has been written completely from scratch to be easily portable and extensible.

        The supported transmitters are the DEVO 6/6S/7E/8/8S/10/12/12S/F7/F12E

        The Devo 7e is one of the most highly recommended entry level TXs out there. The Deviation firmware is actively maintained and developed, a new major version, 5.0.0, was just released. There’s also an awesome user base and support community at to help out with any mods or issues.

  11. Raihan

    hey guys, please help me ….I Need a flying Quadcopter hand Controller Wiring diagram..

  12. Riaan Theron

    Hi Oscar,

    I got a Syma Drone for free with no remote and manual can i use any 4CH 2.4G remote control for my Quadcopter.Please can you help

    1. Robin

      Have a look into a Walkera Devo transmitter and flashing DeviationTX to it
      It’s an open source firmware and has been 100% solid for me and allows me to fly all my models
      (from toy quads to 250 fpv quad …and a fleet of helis… from toys to 450 size…and a plane and a buggy.. :D )

  13. Abhinav

    Hi Oscar,
    I have a 4ch transmitter of 2.4GHz freq and i want to connect it my laptop for which dsc port should be present in the transmitter but there is no dsc port. What can be done? plz help.

  14. Jonathan

    Hi Oscar,
    There are tons of transmitters out there, of which most are pretty useless when it comes to Multicopters or FPV.
    There is absolutely no need to get into the high end computer TX with big color screens e.t.c, as all you will ever need to do is have a couple of AUX switches for stuff like flight mode, GPS modes. maybe a camera slider, and a switch for adjustment of maybe PID’s, if your FC supports this. But most transmitters are going to be loaded with features that you wont ever use.
    Stick with a nice mid range 6 to 8 channel TX and as long as its capable of channel assignments and channel reversing, that’s all you are ever going to need.

  15. luisen

    Hi Oscar

    after years of computer-flight-simming i am starting to get interested in the quadcopter “hype”, especially FPV seems like something i could enjoy very much.

    i bought and played around with the FPV freerider game to get a feel of quadcopter controls and i am loving it. but i am concerned about one thing:

    on a real R/C receiver device, can i have the PITCH/ROLL on the LEFT stick and the THROTTLE/YAW on the RIGHT stick? this is the only configuration i personally can fly properly with the FPV view and it feels completely natural to me. but now i see this completely different to both the 2 modes used in real life quadcopter flying.

    so i guess my question, can you easily switch YAW and ROLL on a MODE 2 receiver? or do i need to look out for a special one to buy?


    1. Oscar Post author

      HI Luisen,

      I guess you mean you are more used to MODE 1 TX (Transmitter)?
      Most TX are available in both MODE 1 and 2, so that’s not a problem.
      It won’t affect your RX (receiver).

    2. Kenneth


      When you setup the receiver with your quad, you have to manually connect the receiver to the flight controller. You can simply plug them in whatever order or configuration you want. If you want the throttle on the right, you will swap the gimbals out on the transmitter for mode 1, then plug the channels into the flight controller to suit your needs! good luck!


  16. Aeromodelling

    Very glad to read your blog.Thank you for sharing this article.It is great! I will keep your article in my idea. Very happy reading.

  17. Mike

    Hi Oskar!
    I have spent a lot of time reading your blog and it gave me a lot of tips. Thanks!
    I’m trying to figure out how RC transmitters work.
    1. RC transmitters are universal? meaning, a 2.4GHz RC transmitter can work with any 2.4Ghz receiver that I buy? if
    not, what characteristic other than the frequency should I check to be sure that they will work?

    2. Where can I find more information about the binding proccess between the transmitter and the reciever. What is the init sequence? How is it done? etc.

    Thanks a lot!
    Mike S.

    1. Oscar Post author

      Hi Mike
      1. no… transmitter (TX) usually only work with RX of the same brand… or they should specify which one they are compatible in the product page. Quick google of the TX should also give you some options of what RX can go with it.
      2. binding process might be slightly different from TX to TX… i suggest consulting the manual.

  18. Abhitosh


    can i control a quadcopter for laptop without any other transmitter…
    what program requaired to controle it

  19. Fikri

    Hi, im a newbie at this. Can esc in quads be programmed in a way that only 1 side has throttle and no throttle at all on the other? this would cause the quad to flip i suppose?

    With that, is there a way we can program the controller to like trigger a switch when we want the quad to flip? Cause i was thinking of doing a waterproof quad. So initially it flies in the air normally with the 4 channel, and thn i set it to float on water. After that, i was thinking of maybe triggering a switch on the controller so that this time its just gonna flip and nothing else. After it flips, i would trigger the switch back to normal operation. Is that possible?

    Do help me out, thank you guys :)

  20. Zenaida Bonifacio

    Very interesting info !Perfect just what I was looking for! Being rich is having money being wealthy is having time. by Margaret Bonnano.

  21. Dario

    Hi Oscar,

    Im referring to the last part in your article about the Transmitter and its hacking.

    For a University project i plan to hack a transmitter and control my quadro with Data I generate in Arduino or Processing. have you come along with a transmitter that can be adjusted to to this?

    Although Im not super experienced, i imagine the flow of communication like this: my input -> RC transmitter -> rc reciver -> flight controller -> AC -> Motor.

    Can you help me some how?

    Best regards

  22. rick

    i have a hobbyking 6ch transmitter….it works complicated. does annyone know how you set the right settings for quadcopter?

  23. Esmyle

    i am using sunnysky X2208 1500kv motors and propellers 8×4.. what frame should i use?? recommend me cheaper one and suitable for my quadcopter.. and battery 1800mah 20c 14point smthng.V.. how about battery?? is good for my quadcopter?? openpilot,and transmitter flysky FS-T6.. please correct me if i am wrong anywhere.. and yes frame please

  24. Christopher Boyd

    Hello Oscar
    I am reading through all your blog/posts that are so informative. Thank you for taking the time to share you hard won knowledge and skills.
    I have been dabbling in Quads for a few years and decided that I would be in it for the long haul, so……I bought a taranis X9D (Nov 2013). It is a very nice piece of equipment but very complicated for a novice user. I am now spending many hours to learn many basic things so I can actually use it for the first time. It has the potential to run in four “modes/configs” that allow you to use either, 8,12, 16 or 32 channels. It is enabled for telemetry as well.
    I will be connecting it up to the first “serious” copter- a Quanum Nova (aka Cheerson Cx-20), initially using an 8XR FrSky receiver. I think that using different “flight modes” (which I can assign to the various toggle switches) I will be able to use the limited 8 channels for the four motor controls, one for GPS, 2 for the camera gimbal (2 axis only), one for camera shutter. This equals Eight. I am not sure how the telemetry data gets back to the Transmitter. Any one help with that?
    If this is of interest to others I will post some more on it as I work my way through the maze.

    1. Oscar Post author

      Can’t agree more Chris! The Taranis is an excellent product.
      I will write a guide on how to setup taranis telemetry in a week or two hopefully you can wait! :)

      1. christopher Boyd

        Hello Again.
        I just got back to your blog through another circuitous route. I was searching for “understanding flight modes” and “understanding switches” so that I can set up the controller side of my quad on the taranis. I do not understand these adequately yet. Any advice where to find a good tutorial that will give me the fundamentals of what happens when switching flight modes, how switches are used for this. I am not clear if I use a witch will it reallocate one of the radio channels to another function allowing me to effectively increase my number of channels (…..but I still only have 8 receiver channels that are hard wired to the assets on the aircraft…?)
        Your somewhat confused pupil!

      2. Oscar Post author

        Please join our FB group, lots of people can offer advice there, link on top left of the website.

  25. King Kaiju

    Hey I just ordered a Syma X5C-1 (4-channel with a 4 channel remote), is there anyway I can upgrade the the transmitter/receiver? I also want to see if I can upgrade the battery life and flight distance. What do you think?

    1. Robin

      Yep, certainly the TX benefits from a better one – if you google for Deviationtx if will give the lowdown
      I’m surprised Deviation doesn’t get more of a mention on here TBH, electronics tinkering galore :D

    2. gerrypw

      I am sure you have moved on to other quads by now but the x5c is a good way to cut your teeth in this field of play. You can mode your TX for longer ranger which you might have discovered already. Have fun.

  26. daristiz

    Hi oscar. I bought a 9xr radio But I’m confused about what transmitter and receiver should I Buy.
    Could you Give me an advise about this and Maybe give me some link? Thanks in advance.

    Greetings from South América

    1. Hizzy

      This is the recommended module set up for 9XR.

  27. firdaus

    Hi Oscar,
    I have Esky Belt CP V2 Heli which is 6Channel transmitter and receiver. Can i use it for Quadcopter? I plan to buy ARF kit Quad.


  28. Daniel C.

    Oscar please help me I have a ton of questions to many to ask just now. Text me please at 915-400-6422 ur blog helped so much I’m sure you can help even more.

  29. Pakal

    “They are more expensive radios transmitter, but they do have nicer gimbals, maybe better resolution.”
    What is the function of a gimbal in a transmitter? And how many gimbals there are in a transmitter and where is it located inside the transmitter?
    Thanks for your reply.

      1. Pakal

        I was actually thinking of the transmitter gimbals. And just when I hit the “post” button, I realized that those mysterious internal gimbals have actually been right in front of my eyes the whole time!
        Thanks for replying anyhow.

  30. alu

    Hi Oscar,
    Nice tut,

    How do you think about the idea that we use other (separated) telemetry using 433mGhz rf modul for other control like switch flying modes, gimbal control or camera ctrl?


  31. Matthis

    Hi, I chose the JR PROPO XG8 whith RG831B receiver and I’m building my own drone quadcopter . I would like to use the flight controller naze 32 but I saw on the net that it does not work with the DMSS modulation, is it true? is there any possibility to solve this problem? if there is no way, I will buy an other flight controller but It’s difficult to find informations about this so do you know any flight controller that i can use with my RC ?

    I am sorry for my english I think it is not really correct …

    have a nice day,

  32. shushant

    Hello sir,
    I am a beginner. ….u also can’t say me a beginner because I am very keen about quadcopters I just love them. I am just 14 I saw a video on YouTube on how to make a quadcopter. I am confused about the RC transmitter.

    1) on the video it showed that u need a transmitter and reciever with 4ch……I live in india and there I found all other parts but I didn’t found the RC controller.pls help me with some indian sites selling 4ch transmitter
    2) I am getting a 6ch transmitter at a low cost so should I buy it as I am worried tht I won’t have a 4 ch reciever as shown in the video and it won’t work.

    Thank you

  33. Ashade

    Would you recommend the newer 9xr instead of the 9x or would you directly go for the Taranis.

    Thank you in advance

  34. Nitish

    I am a beginer.Is FR SKY CT6-B 6ch is fine for a quadcopter.In future I want to upgrade my copter. For quadcopter with GPS navigation how many channels(minimum) required.

    1. Oscar Post author

      Get 8 channel, you won’t regret it!
      4 for basic control, at least 2 for switch modes, 1 or 2 for gimbal control, or/and FPV cameras switch (recording camera & FPV camera)

  35. prabhanjan


    i just had a basic doubt,I have a transreciever with 3 channels,but your blog seems to suggest that we have a minimum of 4 channels. Can I not send the data on same channel by multiplexing,which reduces the number of channel usage.Please enlighten me on this matter.

  36. Jaran


    I’ve been away from RC for some years and thinking about getting back to flying.

    Can my many years old JR X3810 transmitter fly quadrotor? I’ve already upgraded my radio with a 2.4Ghz module (it’s frsky mudule). Which mode do I have to choose in the radio, heli or plane?

    Thank you so much.

    1. Oscar

      as long as your transmitter has more than 4 channel then it should be fine.
      use heli mode, that’s what i am using on my Turnigy 9X.

  37. Marco

    Hi there,
    as far as I know the Turnigy 9X can’t handle the fail safe: is that correct?
    It would be a very best buy but I really need the fail safe feature for my esa and, even more, for my “flying cameras”: how to solve?
    Any advice?
    Best regards, Marco

      1. Ken

        One option is to use a flight controller with two way telemetry. That way you can trigger a RTL event if the RC transmitter or receiver fails.

        I purchased a Turnigy 9XR from HobbyKing for under $60 US without a transmitter module. It has open source firmware available and can be configured from an application on your PC. You can buy a transmitter/receiver module on 2.4GHz, 430MHz and several others to suit your frequency and distance needs.

        For the hacker (like those of us visiting Oscar at his Internet home here), OrangeRX makes a TX/RX module based on the Arduino that can be customized.

        The Turnigy 9XR, OrangeRX TX/RX on 430MHz, a FlySky TX/RX on 2.4GHz and programming hardware together cost less than the JR XG8 we bought my wife ($450 US at a local hobby store). The JR feels like a higher quality transmitter, but I like to tinker. :-)

        Oscar – Thanks for all your efforts with this site.

      2. Oscar

        Yes, very good point.
        One thing everyone should be aware of is, what frequency bands and signal power are allowed for personal use, before buying the equipment.
        Although it’s unlikely anyone would find out or even care, but it’s important we fly safely and do not affect other people.
        Some times i envy people living in the states, many frequencies are open to public.

  38. Jasveer

    Hi there, I need to purchase a transmitter/receiver but I just not sure where can i get it for a better or cheaper price. My goal is to be able to fly my x quadcopter for at least 10 to 12 minutes and we are also looking for one extra channel for the landing purpose. Can you suggest me a better place to purchase it. Thank you for your time. Best regards.

    1. Oscar


      try, they sell RC stuff at really low price. Another place to look for cheap transmitter would be ebay.
      remember it doesn’t has to be expensive, for quadcopter, 4 to 6 channels would be enough. But if you are thinking about long term investment, Turnigy 9X is a good one (9 channels, and lots of potential for modification).

      1. Dj_Garfield

        Yep , Hobby King , right one : serious , listen to the customers , fast mailing , simply one of my favourite :)
        ( HobbyGaGa for the price too and banggood is multipurpose so I can joint Arduino orders with RC one )

        I like :
        “They are more expensive radios transmitter, but they do have nicer gimbals, maybe better resolution.”
        If you search in Futaba , or something equal, yes it’s expensive and would like to try , on day , If the difference justify the price ~|:
        => Thought last month …

        Today I can feel the difference between the HK-T6A-M1 , and Walkera DEVO12 , and the ration Price / Quality is sensable ( syntax ?? ) … ( HK-T6A-M1 :20.33€ / Walkera DEVO12E :148.99€ ), ok we have 6 channels more , but the stick linearity … The sweetness of the stick . All the type of “pilot” Mode : 1,2,3,4
        the stickers and all serigraphy are for mode 2 , I fly in mode 3 :) Totaly reversed :) as My brain :)
        If you plan to test at the beginning the HK is quiet what’s we must have … when virus propagates … it’s another story :) ( where are my pills ?? )

      2. Oscar Post author

        thanks Garfield, yes most of the times we don’t have the chance to try every products, and many reviews on the internet isn’t always true. That’s why it’s good to meet people on the field, and try their gear :D

    2. suman hazra

      Hi there, I need to purchase a transmitter/receiver but I just not sure where can i get it for a better or cheaper price. My goal is to be able to fly my x quadcopter for at least 10 to 12 minutes and we are also looking for one extra channel for the landing purpose. Can you suggest me a better place to purchase it. Thank you for your time. Best regards.


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