Using Li-Ion Battery Pack for Long Range FPV Flying

by Oscar

Li-Ion cells such as 18650 or 21700 have higher energy density than LiPo (more capacity mAh for the same weight), they make great battery for long range flying. I will recommend what to buy, and also show you how I built a 4S 18650 Li-Ion battery from scratch.


Further Reading: Here are my tips on long range FPV flying.

Differences Between Lipo and Li-ion

There are 3 main differences:

  • Energy density
  • Discharge rate
  • lowest safe voltage

Li-ion battery packs are alternative to the most common Lipo batteries. Comparing similar size packs, Li-ion has about double the capacity.

lipo vs li-ion for FPV flying size comparison

Left: LiPo 4S 1500mAh; Right: Li-ion 4S 3000mAh (18650)

LiPo batteries have much higher discharge rate than Li-ion, meaning you can get much higher current out of them. To give you an idea, typically a high quality LiPo have around 30C to 40C of continuous discharge rate, while Li-ion only has 5C (What’s C rating?)

Lastly, you can usually discharge a LiPo down to 3.5V per cell safely, however Li-ion can go much lower, e.g. 3.0V per cell. Both battery types can be fully charged to 4.2V per cell.

The Pros and Cons of Flying Li-Ion Battery

Li-Ion battery has higher capacity than LiPo for the same weight. The 4S 18650 3400mAh I built, only weighs 203g, while a 4S 1600mAh LiPo has nearly the same weight. On paper you should get double the flight time!

However, the maximum discharge rate of Li-Ion battery is not great compared to LiPo, that’s why it’s not a popular battery choice for FPV drones. If you power an FPV freestyle drone with Li-ion, it will feel very weak and slow.

For long range aircraft however, it’s a great option because they don’t require a lot of current. If you use an efficient power system, Li-Ion cells can totally handle it.

In fact, Li-Ion battery has been popular in RC fixed wings / planes as they normally only use one motor. It’s also possible to use on highly efficient quadcopters. I tested a long range quad that weighs under 250g. With a 4S 18650 Li-Ion battery I custom built, i was able to get nearly half an hour of flight time :) It’s pretty incredible! But it doesn’t have the power to perform crazy acro moves, I was only able to cruise around most of the times and do a few flips and rolls here and there.

What’s 4S1P and 4S2P?

4S is the nominal voltage of the pack, i.e. how many cells are connected in series. 2P is how many cells are connected in parallel. 4S1P has 4 cells while 4S2P has 8 cells in total. They both have the same nominal voltage, but 4S2P will be able to provide double the current, capacity and weight.

Buying Pre-made Li-ion Battery Packs

If you don’t want to make your own battery packs, you can just buy them off the shelf.




Things You Need To Build Your Own Li-ion Battery

Here is the wiring diagram of a 4S Li-Ion battery pack with XT60 and balance connectors.

Take a look at the balance port and watch out for the wire order.

Note that there are two main types of Li-Ion cells we use, 18650 and 21700. The numbers are basically the dimension of the cell, 21700 is heavier and physically larger, so is its capacity.

I am using 18650 here because it’s generally more common and widely available online.

Sony VTC5A (US18650VTC5A) and VTC6 (US18650VTC6) are the popular choices, with capacity of 2600mAh and 3000mAh respectively. VTC5A has higher discharge rate (25A) than VTC6 (20A), but slightly less flight time. I am using Panasonic NCR18650B in this build log only because I have some spare. They are okay for powering FPV goggles, maybe some low power builds too, but try to get the VTC cells if you can, they have much better performance.

Buy 18650 Batteries Here:

You will also need some wires (I am using 16AWG for the discharge lead and 20AWG for balance lead), as well as 5-pin balance connector and a XT30 or XT60 connector. XT30 should be fine, but XT60 might be more convenient if that’s what you use on the drone.

Buy XT30 Connectors Here:

XT60 Connectors

Buy 16 AWG Wires Here:

Buy Balance Connector Here

Buy Heatshrink Here

How I Built 4S 18650 Battery

Disclaimer: Soldering on battery is dangerous, if you decide to follow instructions in this post, do so at your own risk.

Solder wires to the connectors, I use longer wires than I need, and I can just trim them to the length I want later.

Soldering wires to the 18650 cells according to my wiring diagram. You should definitely check out my tutorial on how to solder 18650 batteries safely.

Here’s the top side.

build 4s li-ion battery for long range flying solder balance discharge xt60

Here’s the bottom side.

Cover all solder joints with electrical tape then finally wrap it in heatshrink. And yes, you can probably use a shorter discharge lead to save a couple of grams, I made it longer on purpose.

build 4s li-ion battery for long range flying

The 4S 18650 battery weights 203g, and I get about 30 mins of flight time from it on the Flywoo Explorer LR 4″:

li-ion battery for long range flying fpv drone

Edit History

  • Aug 2020 – article created
  • Mar 2021 – added product links to where you can buy Li-Ion packs directly

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Lee 28th September 2022 - 10:13 pm

I made a li-ion for my long range. Are there betaflight settings to change when using these batteries as I was suffering glitches. GPS rescue didn’t work and video was dropping out where it shouldn’t have.

Jayden Lawson 21st September 2022 - 5:16 am

Product links need updating. Thanks – great post.

babipsylon 5th August 2022 - 12:16 pm

Do they use all power suddenly under 3V in the osd per cell?

René Mach 26th May 2022 - 10:48 pm

Why is nobody using liion pouch cells for fpv ?
They have even higher energy density, are lighter and have a higher discharge rate.
Seems absolutely perfect to me. Am I overlooking something?

Jayden Lawson 21st September 2022 - 5:19 am

My FPV batteries have 120C discharge rate ( Are you sure you’ve got your C ratings right?

Pete 4th April 2022 - 1:21 pm

Nice little walk through. I’ve gone with molicel batteries for my builds as they are rated at 25a discharge. They are pretty much the best 18650’s out there at the mo. I’ve also gone with a 21700 4s 2600mah with 30a rated for an extra 60 grams, which should perform pretty well. I would at very least buy the cells from a reputable seller, like 18650uk or fogstar as there are a LOT of fake cells that have just been rebranded with a different wrap on them!
The most you’ll get from an 18650 is 3500mah which is a LGMJ1 cell but, these are only rated for 10amps so not really any good. So many companies claiming that they can get more are just bs to be honest. The smallest cell I’d use would be the samsung 25r or the sony vt5 but, the best by far are the molicel p26a at 2600mah and 25a if anyone else was thinking of making there own :)

Magnus 6th February 2022 - 11:29 am

Thanks for this guide, however I was a bit too quick and bought the Panasonic NCR18650B cells and built a 6S battery. I was just going to charge it when I decided to double check its C-rating, only to discover that it is 2C… I’m guessing this battery is pretty much useless for even an efficient 5″ LR build? What would even happen if I were to try and fly it, would the batteries overheat pretty much instantly? I’m probably better off taking it apart and using it to power my goggles…

Tim 25th May 2022 - 4:09 am

The molicel site lists the P26a at 35 amps and the p28a at 40 amps.

Alfred 27th January 2022 - 2:56 pm

Why don’t you use protective circuitry? Thank you

Matteo 23rd January 2022 - 4:49 pm

Hi Oscar.
I am using a 2s Li-ion with a drone very similar to the Flywoo Explorer LR (4″, 1404 motors).
Although for BLHeli32 there is no option for low voltage cutoff, I am unable to take-off at voltages below 3.3V/cell. Any idea of why this is happening?

Todd 23rd December 2021 - 6:10 am

Today I built a 4s and a 6s pack using Sony VTC6D 2800mAh cells. I discharged the packs to 3.0v/cell and then charged them to 4.2v/cell (ISDT 608AC charger). Both packs took around around 2600mAh which surprised me. I was expecting the 6s to have a higher capacity (expecting 6s to take approximately 1/3 more mAh than the 4s). What am I missing?

Todd 23rd December 2021 - 8:04 pm

Or is that the amount “per cell”? If so that would make sense. If that is the case I also assume that betaflight reports consumption on a per cell basis. I wondered why my 4s and 6s lipos are only showing around 700-900mAh used when I get down to landing voltage.

Todd 23rd December 2021 - 8:23 pm

I guess this link sort of answers my question but I must still be missing something because I don’t fully understand the benefit of adding more cells. I know the voltage goes up but if the capacity isn’t increased what’s the benefit?

Todd 23rd December 2021 - 9:11 pm

Aha! What I am really interested in is “Wh”! You had the answer to my question right here:

Gurt 19th November 2021 - 1:13 pm

Hello, I did a 4s with VTC6 18650 Li-ion (3000mAh) and I am able to fly 29 minutes with my HGLRC Rekon5 HD (6s version), so cool. I will also try to fly with a 4s 5000 21700 that I am doing for my DJI Googles, but it is 100gr more than the 4s 18650…

MT 9th September 2021 - 7:08 am

Those panasonic cells get really hot easily.

zac 25th August 2021 - 7:43 am

Assuming we use a 5 inch drone that fly on 4S LiPo’s using a Mamba 35A Stack and 2207 motors.
Now is it possible to fly the same drone using Li-Ion 18650 4S packs ?
1. What is the pre-condition checks for the existing drone if we should attempt to fly using Li-Ion packs ?
2. What is the precautions to take before and during flying the drone so as not to burn / damage the stack ?

Oscar 25th August 2021 - 12:27 pm

1. how much amp is required to take off, hover and cruise? is the Li-Ion pack able to handle that current?
2. You won’t burn or damage the stack using Li-ion 18650 pack, worse scenario is that you couldn’t fly with it.

Phil 24th July 2021 - 3:49 pm

If things go wrong while soldering, how bad can the explosion get, assuming the battery has been discharged as recommended?

Blitzed FPV 9th June 2021 - 1:20 pm

Do Li-ion batteries need to be kept at a specific voltage for storage? Similar to Li-po batteries (3.85v)?

Oscar 9th June 2021 - 1:22 pm

Yes, similar to LiPo, at around 3.8V.

Al 19th April 2021 - 8:48 pm

I wanted to take a crack at doing this project, but i used some cheap batteries i got from bangood on sale. They said it was 4000 mah but i highly doubt they really are. Put the entire thing together using a plain old solder at high temp and short periods of heat exposure. The final product looked pretty impressive. Charged the cells using a LI-ON setting on my charger and got a few messages indicating that the battery had been disconnected (without touching anything). After i got a good charge, tried using the 4s LION battery on my new Flywoo Explorer 4 and as soon as it took off maybe 1 foot of the ground, the whole thing would shut down. I guess the batteries are just not supplying the load needed.
Any suggestions as to what’s happening here ? Thank you in advance. BTW I just got the panasonic batteries that you are recommending for this project.

Oscar 20th April 2021 - 5:22 pm

There’s no 4000mah 18650 battery, it’s just not a thing, so I think you got the fake cells.
Get them from a well known local vapor shop! I found it to be the best way to get 18650. Too many fakes cells online.

602724225 16th April 2021 - 8:55 am

Hi, is it possibile to use two Lion batteries, one 4s 4000mah (vtc6a) and 6s 3000mah (vtc6) in the same time? How to connect it

Oscar 17th April 2021 - 6:43 pm

Not a good idea. Use the same cells in the same battery.

Mark 14th June 2021 - 2:35 pm

That is exactly where I find mine! They work great. Thanks for the write up. Very helpful.

Tooraj 10th April 2021 - 6:23 pm

hello and thanks Oscar,

I bought a flywoo explorer and for it made my pack of Li ions. 4s 2200 mAh was the best I could get. Is that enough?

and more importantly until what voltage do you continue to fly?
for me the quad was alarming under 14v and I got nervous and landed.

Oscar 11th April 2021 - 11:46 am

That’s a bit low for 18650 cells. You will probably only get 15 mins or so with that.
I normally land when it gets to 2.8V per cell, some even wait until 2.5V which I think is a bit risky.
You can set minimum voltage and warning voltage in Betaflight lower so it doesn’t alarm too early.

david thurman 16th March 2021 - 4:18 pm

I have yet to find anything on the discharge rating calculation for lion batteries. Do i take the discharge amp rating per battery and multiply that against the Mah of the battery like we do with c ratings on lipos? So I am looking at 45amp 4200 molicel 21700 battery and as far as I can calculate a 6s can handle 189 amp max discharge. or slightly under 48 amps per motor if i am not mistaken. Is this correct?

Oscar 17th March 2021 - 1:00 pm

No, for Li-ion battery they should state the max discharge current in the data sheet?
Lets say if it was 30A, if you connect 6 of them in series to make a 6S pack, the max discharge current is still 30A.

Raptor 10th February 2021 - 3:41 pm

I want ask u… I have quad wizard x220.. not flywoo.. i have tried make 3s lithium ion battery..but my quad cannot fly for long time.. it less than lipo battery.. why my 3s battery lithium ion not effective to me?? I want to use lithium battery because i want more fly time.. 3s lipo only 5minit.. can u tell me why the reason…. Tq

Oscar 12th February 2021 - 6:08 pm

Old battery? fake capacity? You can test capacity, drain them down to 3V/cell, then charge them back to 4.2 and see how much mAh is put back.
If capacity is too low, maybe get some new ones, I posted a link to them in the article.

Jonathan 2nd February 2021 - 2:52 pm

It would be awesome to get more photos or a better diagram of how you have the balance leads wired up. Other than that this is a fantastic, easy to digest, guide.

Rotor Rioter 16th December 2020 - 11:07 pm

I’m assuming you did not read the disclaimer…..

Vincent Lublink 15th November 2020 - 12:12 pm

What is the best way and best settings tocharge this battery?

Oscar 9th January 2021 - 8:40 pm

I just charge them like lipo but with a low current (e.g. 1C), but this is just my way, not saying this is the right/safe way.

Jake 14th November 2020 - 4:02 pm

Do the same rules for charing lipos apply to liion?

Like what rate should I charge at? 3,000 mah 4d liion okay to charge at 3amps?

What’s the best storage voltage?

What’s the land voltage?

What’s the max voltage?

Roy 11th October 2020 - 7:04 am

How long does yours take to charge?

I built this and all the connections are good, with each cell showing as it should on the charger.

I set my charger for Lithium Ion balance change, maximum 2 Amps. However it seems to be taking a very long time. Is this normal, or did I somehow overcook the cells?

Georgi Tushev 7th October 2020 - 11:57 am

The problem with using other cells is that is very difficult to find such with high “c” rating, let say 35-40Amps for Ok performance. I mostly use 21700 , they are as popular as 18650.

allen hornback 3rd October 2020 - 6:59 pm

Oscar is well known in the quad/drone World and knows what he is talking about. I stand by his word!

Jose Cuevas 23rd September 2020 - 1:33 am

Hey if I were to wire the balance lead reversed would it make my isdt charger give an error code? It’s giving balance lead voltage too high.

ORastah 8th September 2020 - 2:19 pm

Hello I’m starting too, I don’t know much about it, but I would like to know if using the 3400 mha 3.7 battery, I can use 9900 mha 3.7 to further increase the autonomy of flight

Dustin T 26th August 2020 - 6:22 pm

Hey Oscar, thank you for the write up! I am impatiently waiting for my explorer LR HD to be delivered. Plan on assembling a few of these packs and had a few questions:

1) Should I be looking at protected or unprotected 18650s? I plan on assembling just as you did in this tutorial.

2) what is the lowest amp rating for a 4s 18650 pack you would run on the explorer? As I understand, there is a trade-off between a higher mAh vs discharge amperage. I am willing to sacrifice a little flight time if it means that performance will be unaffected vs running a lipo. I’m totally new to FPV so pardon my ignorance.


Oscar 4th September 2020 - 4:01 pm

1) unprotected 18650
2) maybe just get the cells I linked in the articles, these have been tried and tested :)

Fabian 20th August 2020 - 7:24 pm

Things I thought about, maybe someone can help:
1. How much is the current-draw difference between 3s and a 4s battery for 3″ quads. Lower voltage->more current (p=u*i). But also lighter. Any experiences?
2. Do you think that 0.1*7mm nickel-strips and the spot-welded “spots” will sustain the ~10A current. Not sure if i should spotweld or solder the batteries…

Happy flying together

Bruce Robinson 20th August 2020 - 12:38 pm

What is your best guess at the “C” rating of this pack and is the balance lead used when you charge on your ISDT in Li-Ion mode? I have a Hitec X2 that has a Li-Ion mode. Do you know if it will work the same way as your ISDT?

Christian Markussen 19th August 2020 - 8:30 am

If you do not want to solder the cells then you can buy assembled packs and attach you own lead and balancing connector. Here is a link to AliExpress using the 18650 VTC6 cells rated for 30A. I have ordered two packs and will try them out on the Explorer that I just ordered.

Jesper 18th August 2020 - 12:22 pm

Thank you so much for your content, Oscar.

This was just what I needed in preparation of my Explorer, while it makes it’s way through corona-slowed international post. I have started backing you on Patreon, because your content is truly remarkable. Also enjoy it’s written.

TO ALL WHO USES OSCARS CONTENT: Back him on Patreon. It must require tons of work, which saves us tons of time and mistakes. Goto:

Oscar 4th September 2020 - 2:56 pm

Thank you !

Jason Slater 16th August 2020 - 8:11 pm

Your balance lead diagram needs to be much clearer than sending wire to middle of another wire

MJW 15th August 2020 - 5:25 pm

Hey Oscar, thanks for this article! Very interesting.

Question, being that this li-ion 4s battery build has an XT-60 connector, can you charge this on the typical chargers we normally use for Lipo (assuming the charger has a li-ion setting) or do you need to use a different type of charger?

Thank you

Oscar 17th August 2020 - 7:39 pm

I personally use iSDT chargers, and they have Li-Ion mode.
I see people charging them in LiPo mode, but do this at your own risk :)

Peter 15th August 2020 - 6:38 am

Agree, you should at least put BIG red disclaimer about risks of doing it.
Other than that, nice article .)

Oscar 17th August 2020 - 7:35 pm

There is disclaimer

Leurne FPV 15th August 2020 - 12:20 am

do same for 6s batteries! haha

Azurflying 13th August 2020 - 9:09 pm

only for 1806 motors or below for 5 or 4 inch, and very light weight quad. More than 20 mn flight time, with all my own packs since 2 years. 2.9v max low limit. Works fine, but very gentle on the throttle.

CESAR FIERRO MONTALBA 13th August 2020 - 2:39 pm

hi Oscar.

I have a doubt about the discharge current, I bought the following batteries from TBS to make a 4S2P 18650 battery. But it only has 10A drain current. is it enough or should I consider a more current one.

Oscar 17th August 2020 - 7:27 pm

Depends on how much current your model draws when cruising.
For example my quad draws 6A and 10A con. discharge should be fine.

Mr.saleprot 13th August 2020 - 2:13 pm

Why you building 4s Not 6s?

Oscar 17th August 2020 - 7:26 pm

because my quad takes 4s only.

naoru 13th August 2020 - 11:19 am

And now people will solder 18650s “because Oscar did so”.

How irresponsible of you.

Tom 27th December 2021 - 5:21 am

It’s true li-ion shouldn’t be soldered, but all you’ve done is leave a nasty comment to a guy who provides a lot of great free content.

People, heating up li-ion can permanently change their chemistry and impair their ability to charge/discharge. Instead of soldering, please use a spot welder.