What is RSSI Transmitter Receiver – RC Quadcopter

RSSI is a measurement of how good radio signal is between RC transmitter and receiver, which stands for Received Signal Strength Indication. It’s an important safety feature to help avoid lost of radio signal, which could lead to unexpected quadcopter crashes and damage to properties.

Getting RSSI

RSSI is generated from the receiver, but not all RX can have this feature. You can connect the RSSI pin on the RX to the FC or OSD if supported. Some receivers don’t provide this pin for RSSI so DIY modification and additional components might be required. If the radio system is capable of telemetry, it’s also possible to obtain RSSI and display it on your TX. You can even do some more advanced hacks with this.

For example with the FrSky Taranis transmitter and D4R-II receiver. The combo provides 1.5 km of range and telemetry feature including RSSI. We can simply connect the RSSI pin to the OSD, and the RSSI value can be shown on the FPV screen.

Another good thing with telemetry that sends RSSI is that the TX alarm starts beeping when the signal is getting too weak (based on RSSI value). It gives me great peace of mind to know how the signal strength is while flying, and when I should turn back. With this feature I barely looked at RSSI value in my OSD and eventually I removed it.

How to use RSSI signal

Knowing the difference between digital and analog RSSI

The RSSI is normally an analogue value (a voltage level). But that is not always the case and it could exist as PWM signal (pulsed width modulated) with variable high-low ratio depending on signal strength. Therefore there could be incompatibility in the system when reading RSSI. (That’s why a lot of people’s RSSI in OSD is always 0, 50 or 100)

To solve that, we need to convert the PWM signal to a voltage easily using a “Digital to Analog converter”, or simply a low pass filter (Resistor-Capacitor filter).


Some OSD modules or flight controllers accept direct connection to the PWM RSSI output because they have a low pass filter built in.

What if OSD doesn’t support RSSI?

If your OSD doesn’t support RSSI input, you might still be able to display RSSI. Most OSD has dual battery inputs (BAT1 and BAT2), they were designed to display your primary and secondary battery voltage levels. But most of the times we would only use one and with the spare battery input we can use that for RSSI.

Normally the range of the RSSI value is 3.7V to 0V (100% to 0%) when converted from PWM. It might not be a percentage number but voltage, you still get a good idea what RSSI level is. I did this mod with my Hobbyking E-OSD, and it worked like a charm.

Understanding what RSSI is

Not something you need to know in order to use RSSI, but in case you are curious.

RSSI isn’t actually an linear measurement like voltage or temperature, but a ratio of the current signal to some initial “good” value. It’s in dB, same measuring system used for audio levels. dB is a logarithmic measure, and it’s not linear. What this means is that by increasing 6dB means the signal has doubled in strength. So a change of +12dB in the RSSI means the signal has increased in power by 4 times, by +18dB means the signal has increased in power by 8 times, and so on.

For instance, if the RSSI reads about 110 at 1m and every time you double the distance between the transmitter and receiver, the RSSI level should drop by 6. At about 100 meters you should get an RSSI value of about 70 in ideal conditions.

A good way to see this effect is to use Range Test mode on your radio transmitter. In range test mode the transmitter module operates at 1/30 of full power.

RSSI for SBUS Protocol in Betaflight

In Betaflight 3.4 there is a new feature that calculates RSSI automatically when you are using SBUS. I think the way it works it pretty similar to LQ measurement in the TBS Crossfire, where the link quality is determined by the amount of corrupted packets.

When the radio link gets weak, SBUS packets can become corrupted. SBUS reports these corrupted packets to the FC, but previously this was ignored. Now, Betaflight can use these corrupted packets as an indicator of link strength, and show the result as RSSI in your OSD.

In my opinion this way of measuring RSSI is better than the traditional way which doesn’t take into account noise level of the environment. You can have a high RSSI and high number of corrupted data at the same time if noise interference is high.

This new feature is is also better than “passing RSSI through a spare PPM or SBUS channel“, because it doesn’t take up any channel.

Note that this link-quality metric doesn’t behave exactly like RSSI used to. As you’re approaching the range limit, the value can drop off a lot faster than you expected. So make sure to do some test flights and get used to the new system.

First created in May 2014, last updated in Aug 2016.

12 thoughts on “What is RSSI Transmitter Receiver – RC Quadcopter

  1. Randy Sonnicksen

    I’m not sure about the need for a “low pass filter”. I connected my FrSky Delta8 receiver to an Arduino interrupt pin and simply measured the ON time, and OFF time of the pulses coming from channel 2 (RSSI) while the receiver was operating in CPPM mode. I am getting ON pulses which vary from 4000 microseconds (4 milleseconds) when the signal is strong, to approx 150 us when the signal is very weak or the transmitter is off. The off time was 5000 us – the ON time. In other words, the pulses are coming at a consistent 5000 us (5ms) frame rate. No extra resistors or capacitors needed. Just direct into a digital pin. I don’t know about other systems, or how various flight controllers work, but this definitely seems to be a PWM signal with a 5ms frame rate. Very easy to handle it in its raw digital form.

  2. Enrico

    I’m sure you have face this issue and you will be able to give me some explanation.
    I’m using a F4 Kakute FC that has dedicated pin for RSSI.
    I connected the RSSI pad from the XSR and i’ve connected the Smartport signal as well.

    Now i have the OSD always showing a very healthy RSSI while the Taranis is often giving me low RSSI warning.

  3. Ion C Tesu

    How is the RSSI function implemented in the Frsky receivers? More to the point, how is the RSSI numver sent back to the TX?

    1. Oscar Post author

      depends on the RX, sometimes it’s via a channel, sometimes it’s via Telemetry, sometimes there is a output on a pin that you need to connect to the FC and use it to display on OSD.

  4. John Alsop


    I think there is an error in the description of dB. If you double the power, that is + 3 dB. If you cut the power in half, that would be – 3 dB. Remember that the ‘d’ in dB stands for “deci” which means 1/10. The ‘B’ stand for “Bell”, the inventor of the telephone (in the U.S., at least). So 10 dB is equal to 1 B which represents a factor of 10 in the signal power. The reason we typically use dB (one-tenth of a Bell) is because the Bell is a very large unit, and dB is more convenient term.

    1. Newby-aeronaut

      Yes, your reply is correct. RSSI is typically referred to the power level. Power in decibels is P [dBW] = 10log(P/1W). And decibels in voltage is v [dBV]=20log(v/1V). This way losses (or gains) can be computed P1 [dBW] – P2 [dBW] = v1 [dBV] – v2 [dBV]. Following the previous definitions, 3 dB means twice more power.

  5. Bela Motko

    maybe somebody can to help me. ( sorry but i’m not a technical talent but i’d like to understand what and why happens.)
    I’ve iris+ from 3drobotics. it’s a nice “bird” but there is a serious problem with range. there is no one to give me usefull advise.
    at about 100-130m (in open field) the remote spek beep and be-be-be…i think this is a RSSI warning, the rx value (left upper corner on the lcd) is about 35-45 percent. the remote is a (dedicated by 3dr) fs th9x with djt modul, the receiver on the board is Frsky 4dr II. the radio is calibrated in mission planner. this problem was no before but some weeks ago it is appear systematic.

    3dr support wrote a very usefull advise: try the kvad in an another place:-)

    what can i do? apparently everything is good. receiver and transmitter moduls blinking normal the kvad reacts normally…but the range…
    do i have to rebind? measure the remote signal strenght?

    any idea?

    thanks for the help
    (and sorry for my google english)

      1. Bela Motko

        maybe there is one…I don’t know. apparently all of relevant parts are in original position. i tried reposition the antennas but this no solved the problem. I think need to rebind, make a range test, mesure the transmitting power…then replace the parts.
        (I afraid after replacing the problem appear again.)

        question: is there any information in the pixhawk logfile?

  6. Lucas

    great post…. is the stock receiver that comes with the Turnigy 9X the best receiver for it? i heard it is a bit heavy(18g apparently) what receiver would you recommend?

    1. Oscar Post author

      i don’t think there is any other option as far as i know. if you want lighter, more reliable system, replace the stock transmitter module with a Frsky one, and use Frsky system.


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